Master of Laws (L.L.M.)

Master of Laws (LLM)

Masters of Laws (LL.M.) is a 2-year post-graduate degree in Law. LL.M. degree allows a law graduate to specialize in one of many legal sub-streams. The basic eligibility for this program is an undergraduate law degree from any recognized university with minimum aggregate marksas per the particular institutes’ requirement.


LLM: Course Highlights

Course Level Post-Graduation
Duration 2 years
Examination Type Semester System
Eligibility Bachelor’s degree in the stream of law or social science with 55% as aggregate
Admission Process Entrance Tests: CLATAILETLSAT
Top recruiting organizations High court, Supreme court, High State court, AZB and partners, Quislex Legal Services, Pangea 3 global services, Clutch Group, etc.
Top recruiting areas Courts, Top law firms, Counsel and Corporate houses
Top job profiles Lawyer, Judge, Notary, Oath administrator, etc
Course Fee INR 1 to 6 Lacs
Average Starting Salary INR 2 to 30 Lacs

LLM: What is it about?

The course enables the students to be specialized in the field of law and legal affairs of the country. This course is designed to give an overview of trademarks and trademark law and practice in countries around the world. There will also be some attention given to various international treaties, conventions and agreements. The focus will vary from historical, philosophical, legal and even practical topic. LL.M. course is generally of 2 years duration in which each year is comprised of two semesters with various subjects based on thesis and research work according to the curriculum of the university. There are a few universities in India like Symbiosis Law School, Pune and Jindal Global Law School, Sonepat which offer 1 year LL.M. program.

Students of LL.M. who do not wish to pursue a legal profession immediately after the completion of the course can always opt for further studies option. Available options are M.Phil. program or Ph.D. program in the law which is offered by many universities such as University of Delhi, University of Madras, University of Calcutta, and National Law School.


LLM: Eligibility

The LL.M. program can be pursued only by the students who have successfully completed their under-graduation in law i.e. LL.B/B.L. Degree/5 Year LL.B. Degree course under 10+2+5 from any recognized university with at least minimum aggregate marks as per institutes requirement.

Certain seats are reserved or are allocated to Foreign Nationals. Students can take admission through common entrance test held by the universities.

LLM: Admission

Generally, universities offering LL.M. course conduct an Entrance Test for admission to the program. The application forms for this course are available in the month of May every year.

The entrance test paper contains around 150 questions which can be both objective and subjective in nature. The duration of the exam is 2 hours which includes negative marking for objective type questions. The marks deducted are usually 1/4th of the marks allocated to the question.

The marking scheme is not fixed for all the universities, it may vary accordingly. The long essay type generally contains 4 questions with 25 marks each. The syllabus for LL.M. entrance exam generally covers the following topic.

  • Jurisprudence
  • Constitutional Law
  • Legal Awareness
  • Current Affairs
  • Legal Aptitude

Master of Laws(LLM): Selection Process

After the entrance test, various universities conduct tie-breaking round for the candidates who have scored equal marks. The candidates are shortlisted on the basis of their performance in entrance test and tie-breaking round. Shortlisted candidates are further called for a counselling session and are then allotted respective colleges.

LLM: correspondence mode of education

Some universities offer distance education for candidates who wish to continue learning through distance education. Some universities like National Law University and Acharya Nagarjuna University offer distance education.

LLM: Syllabus and Course Description

Students have to study some common papers in the 1st semester but from 2nd semester there are few subjects according to the specialization selected by the students. As part of the course, students also undergo an internship with Law Firms.

The weightage of internal and external marks are, generally, 60% and 40% respectively. The teaching methods include lectures, seminars, tutorials, and presentations. The internal assessment depends upon the performances of the students in presentations, tutorials, seminars, viva, projects, assignments etc. The exams are of 100 marks each.

The foundation courses are compulsory for every student to study in 1st semester. The other optional courses are choice subjects which are selected by students according to their interest.

There are many sub fields available for specialization for LL.M. students. Some of these are:

  • Constitutional Law
  • Family Law
  • Taxation Law
  • Corporate law and governance
  • Criminal Law
  • Environmental Law
  • Human rights
  • Insurance Laws
  • Intellectual property Law
  • International Trade and Business Law
  • Jurisprudence

When it comes to syllabus, different universities may have different structure but generally the subjects and topics covered as part of the curriculum are similar. Below is an overview of the general syllabus for LL.M.




Law and social transformation in India

Law and social change, Religion, community and the law, Women and the law, Children and the law

The subject is designed to create awareness of Indian approaches and economic problems in the context of law as a means of social control and change amongst people.


Principles of constitutionalism, Federalism as an aspect of constitutionalism, New challenges to constitutionalism, Justice delivery system in India

The objective is to study how far does the constitutionalism of India is being achieved in Indian Legal System

Legal research and methodology

Precepts, Hypothesis and research work, Techniques and methodology, Conduct of research

This course introduces various methodologies of research in the legal field.

Judicial process

Nature of judicial process, Special dimensions, Judicial process in India, Constitutional amendments

This course aims to study the nature of the judicial process and roles of judges as policy makers.

Group -1: Human Rights and Humanitarian Law

Human rights and jurisprudence, International human rights law, Protection and enforcement of human rights in India, Human rights education

This is a specialization course and deals with aspects of Human rights and various laws framed to ensure basic human rights to every citizen.

Group -2:Alternative Dispute Resolution

Evolution and concept of ADR, Arbitration law in India, International commercial arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation and negotiation, Practical trainings in ADR

This is an elective which focuses on dispute resolution without a trial.

Group -3:Intellectual Property Rights

Nature, emergence and development of IPR’s, Copyright law & neighboring law, Patents law, Law relating trademarks, Law relating to designs and geographical indications, Historical background

It is a specialization which deals with trademark laws and intellectual property rights.

Group -4:International Trade Law

WTO and International trade law, Regulation of IT in India, Settlement of IT disputes, International sale & carriage of goods, International investment laws, International commercial arbitration

This is an elective course which focuses on international trade laws and conflict resolution on matters of trade between parties of different nations.

Group -5:Corporate Law

Law of corporate management & governance, Consumer protection laws, Regulation of capital markets & foreign investment, Corporate taxation, Banking & insurance laws, Law of corporate finance & securities regulations

This course studies how different stakeholders in a company such as directors, creditors, consumer and environment interact with each other.

LLM: Who Should Opt?

Law students and professionals mostly pursue the LL.M. to gain expertise in a specialized field of law, for example in the area of tax law or international law. Many law firms prefer job candidates with an LL.M. degree because it depicts that a lawyer has acquired advanced, specialized legal training, and is qualified to work in a multinational legal environment. Many lawyers prefer to do LL.M. to practice in United States as foreign lawyers are eligible to apply for a bar exam.

LLM: Career Prospects

In contemporary world, law has become an important aspect required to maintain order in a community. From products we buy at supermarkets to travelling abroad, everything involves some sort of legal contract between two parties. Law has seeped in every aspect of our lives, thus making it one of the more in-demand career choices.

In the competitive world that we live in, it is required to have a specialized degree in law to land some of the top-notch and lucrative jobs. Hence an LL.M. degree is a must have for a promising career in legal services.

After completion of LL.M. some obvious career options are in the legal field. They can work in both Public and Private sectors. Certain fields which employ LL.M. graduates are:

  • Law Firms
  • Consultancies
  • Finance
  • Corporate
  • Media and Publishing houses
  • Courthouses
  • International Organizations such as UNO or UNICEF
  • NGO
  • FMCG
  • Real Estate

Some of the job profiles for LL.M. graduates and their job description is given below:

Job Profile Description Average Salary (in INR)
Advocate Advocate is a key profession in the legal career in India. To perform his duties, he must have a lot of knowledge of the laws and plenty of experience in human behaviour and psychology. 6 to 7 Lacs
Magistrate/Judge It is the most cherished position in legal career or in the judicial system in India. 10-12 Lacs
Notary Notary also known as Notary Public, is a qualified and experienced lawyer appointed by the state or central government recommended by the court. 6 Lacs
Oath Commissioner Oath Commissioner all known as Commissioner of Oath is a freshly qualified lawyer appointed by the Registrar of High Court under the provisions of Law. 1 to 3 Lacs
Trustee A Trustee is under a legal obligation to administer a property for a specified purpose.
Legal Document Reviewer A Legal Document Reviewer/Derivative’s job is to negotiate and review various kinds of legal documents and draft responses, ancillary documents etc. 8 – 8.5 Lacs
Legal Consultant/Associate A Legal Consultant/Associate assists in contract summarization, contract management, legal research, drafting, litigation and research related projects. 4.8 Lacs

LLM: Top Recruiting Companies

Some of the top private companies which recruit LL.M. graduates for legal job profiles are:

  • Quislex Legal Services
  • Pangea 3 Global Services
  • Pramata Knowledge Solutions Pvt.Ltd.
  • CPA Global Services
  • Clutch Group

LLM: Salary Trends

The initial salary for an LL.M. graduate depends highly upon the sector they work in and the job profile they hold. Below is an approximation of Law professionals in different sectors.

salary graph for LLM

Apart from the industry of employment, salary also varies according to the job profile held. The graph below throws a light on the entry level, median and maximum salary for different job profiles in the legal field.

salary graph for LLM